Occupational Safety in Construction Industry15.1.2019

Working life brings along many risks. However, when the statistical data are analyzed, it is observed that some sectors are more risky than others. Construction sector is also among the risky sectors.

Legal arrangements are being made around the world to minimize the risks in business life and to prevent accidents. In our Country, Labor Law No. 1475, which came into force in 1971, obliged the employer to provide the necessary conditions for the health and safety of the worker and to keep the tools fully. The Labor Law No. 4857 has started to be applied since 2003 in order to minimize occupational accidents and injuries due to these accidents. In addition, within the scope of the EU harmonization process, Occupational Health and safety law no.6331 (TTSG no. 28389 dated 30.06.2012) and various additional regulations have entered into force. In addition, many laws, such as the Penal Code, Social Insurance Law, Municipal Law, Mining Law, trade s law, apprenticeship and vocational training law, contain substances directly or indirectly related to occupational health and safety.

Risk assessments are carried out in EU countries within the framework of directive 89/391/EEC and the application and legislation of Occupational Health and safety (ISG) in our country has been established within the scope of the International Labour Organization (ILO). In our country, 59 of 158 ILO conventions have been ratified to regulate working life.

The regulation on Occupational Health and safety in construction works was prepared on the basis of Directive 92/57/EEC of the EU. With this regulation, the concept of project manager was created and it was obligatory to notify the construction works before commencement, to appoint health and safety coordinator and to prepare health and safety plan and file when the construction projects are prepared and implemented according to the scope of the work.

 

Job Security;

It covers the determination and implementation of security measures in order to minimize the work accidents and losses resulting from accidents based on scientific research. These measures and practices vary from sector to sector, and in the construction sector, measures and practices related to occupational health and safety will be mentioned.

 

 

WHAT´S A JOB ACCIDENT?

(2) the employer shall ensure that workers who are exposed to carcinogenic substances or agents in the workplace are exposed to carcinogenic substances or agents in the workplace, and in accordance with the provisions of this article, and in accordance with the provisions of this article, and in accordance with the provisions of the national laws and regulations. The most common accidents in construction sites;

 

The Human Fall, the fall of the material, the material of a leap-type accidents (stone, acid, machine parts, nails, sawdust, hand tools, obtained from splashes etc), the type of accidents in the edge of the excavation collapses, the collapse of the construction part in the form of accidents, electric shock, because of the use of explosives accidents, accidents in the building materials (the removal of the machine, the material onto the machine, contact with a power line, etc.), machines/ machines don´t get carried away to the site limb and takes place in the form of traffic accidents.

 

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS?

 

As a result of the direct effect of physical and chemical factors and mechanical and ergonomic factors in the workplace, poisoning and occupational diseases occur. Occupational accidents are also affected by the technological, vehicle and environmental conditions used in the workplace as well as sociological, psychological and physiological factors. In short, work accidents occur as a result of unsafe situations and/or unsafe behavior. If we sort them in headings;

 

Insecure Situations:

Be protective of machinery and machines

Choosing the method of unsafe work

Unsafe and unhealthy environmental conditions

Non-grounding of electrical machines

Selection of hand tools suitable for work

Control and testing of pressurized vessels and lifting machines

The level of danger of height when stacking

Not closing spaces

The workplace is irregular

 

 

Unsafe Behavior:

 

  • Not doing the job consciously
  • Removing / not using machine protectors
  • No personal protective equipment
  • Selection of machinery and equipment suitable for work
  • Distracted and careless work
  • Dangerous fast work
  • Doing business outside the employee´s duty
  • Failure to comply with business discipline
  • Unauthorized and unauthorized presence in the dangerous zone
  • Driving without a driver´s license and driving at dangerous speed

 

 

If we collect the main causes of business accidents under headings;

 

1 - Planning and management errors (lack of building planning, error in enterprise planning, short construction times required, work done by non-specialist firms, lack of control/supervision, companies in joint business can not work together)

 

2 - Accidents related to construction (structural deficiencies, poor quality material use, wrong material use, workmanship errors)

 

3 - Accidents caused by construction site equipment (lack of equipment or equipment, ion of wrong equipment, defective material, constructive deficiencies, lack of adequate protection measures)

 

4 - Accidents caused by working mistakes (faulty pre-preparation, site organization is incomplete / faulty, machine/device/vehicle/equipment controls are not done adequately, uneducated/insufficient workforce, employees are not adequately supervised)

 

5 - Faulty behavior of employees (lack of professional skills, lack of experience, irresponsibility, reckless/ hopeless work))

 

 

OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENT AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STATISTICS

When the statistics are analyzed, the rate of occupational accidents in the world is 44% and the rate of occupational diseases is 56%. According to the data of our country, while the rate of occupational accidents is 99.998%, the rate of occupational diseases is calculated as 0.002% and there is no death record due to occupational diseases in recent years. This is due to the fact that the statistical records are not healthy.

 

As of 2017, it is observed that about 17.5% of total work accidents occurred in construction sector and there has been a serious increase in work accidents as of the years. When the deaths caused by work accidents are examined, it is noted that the most death occurred in the construction sector due to the work accidents.

 

When job accidents are evaluated on the basis of provinces, it is seen as the cities where the most work accidents are experienced in Izmir, Ankara, Kocaeli and Bursa, mainly in Istanbul. However, when accidents are compared to employment, Yozgat, Zonguldak and Isparta are the first places.

 

WHAT IS OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE?

It is called occupational disease because of the illness, disability and psychological problems that the employees experience due to their work. As defined in Social Insurance Law No. 506, temporary or permanent illness, disability and mental breakdown due to the nature of the work or the conditions of the work in which the insured is employed is a disease of the profession

According to the reasons of occupational diseases are classified as follows:;

- Occupational diseases caused by chemicals are due to the following reasons:

*Heavy metals * Solvents * Gases

- Physical occupational diseases due to the following reasons:

* Noise / Vibration

· Operating at high and low pressure

* Cold and hot working

* From dust

· Due to exposure to radiation

- Occupational diseases caused by biological origin are due to the following reasons:

· Bacteria-borne illnesses

· Viral diseases

* Diseases of Biotechnology

- Occupational diseases caused by psychological

- Ergonomically induced occupational diseases (posture disorders etc.))

 

 

WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF PREVENTING OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES?

 

The correct detection and registration of occupational diseases is very important, and taking the necessary measures will provide advantages for the workplaces and employees. The International Labour Organization (ILO) recommended 112 according to the decision, the purpose of health workers;

- To maximize the health capacity of employees

 

- Preventing health disruption of employees due to adverse conditions

 

- The placement of each worker as appropriate physically and spiritually.

 

- Harmony between work and workers is the way to achieve more efficiency with less effort.

 

 

 

It is important for the environment to be aware of the health and safety of the workers in the sector to protect the lives and health of the workers and to ensure their capacity to be high, as well as prevent the material and reputational losses of the owners of the workers.

 

 

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS?

 

- All risks arising from the workplace environment and production process should be determined by accident analysis and all risks should be evaluated, safe and unsafe behavior should be determined.

- The necessary security measures for the identified hazards and risks should be determined and the measures should be developed.

- Developed security measures should be implemented by projecting

- Implemented projects should be checked and evaluation of success

 

 

Accident prevention methods collected under Article 4 above a little more detailed;

- Personal protective equipment such as safety belt, etc. should be used in order to prevent human falls, robust scaffolding and scaffolding should be used, warning signs should be used in a visible way.)

- Precautions should be taken to prevent electric shock

- Be careful when using construction tools

- Necessary measures should be taken against material fall

- Measures should be taken against crashes

 

 

WHAT ARE THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR?

In the construction sector, the employer, sub-employer, Project Manager, Health and safety coordinator and the employees have separate duties and responsibilities. All these responsibilities are collected under separate headings below.;

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of employers for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Provide health and safety of workers in the workplace

- Make/ make risk assessment

- Provide the necessary tools and equipment for the work; provide the necessary training for the work and the use of the tools and the risks; make the necessary Organization for the risk assessments regarding the work; provide health and safety measures and update all of these in accordance with the changing conditions.

- Monitor the implementation of the security measures taken, supervise and ensure that they are corrected if there is any incompatibility

- Assign employees to work in accordance with their health and safety

- Ensure the use of personal equipment in accordance with national standards and regulations by employees

- Measures should be taken to prevent unauthorized access to hazardous areas at the workplace

- Ensure layout and cleanliness of building areas

- Identify access to work places and routes of equipment

- To determine the conditions for the use and transportation of materials to be used for the business

- Provide technical maintenance and control of facilities and equipment

- Determine the storage areas of materials and materials used

- Conditions for hazardous substances and materials use and disposal in case of danger conditions

- Must ensure the storage and disposal of waste

- Determine the duration of the work should revise the durations where necessary

- Work in cooperation with the sub-employer

- Health and safety coordinators should be appointed and the coordinators should take into account the detection, warning and recommendations

- To prepare health and safety plan during the project preparation phase in construction works.

- Make the necessary declarations within the scope of the regulation on Occupational Health and safety in construction works

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of sub-employers for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Provide health and safety of workers in the workplace

- Make/ make risk assessment

- Provide the necessary tools and equipment for the work; provide the necessary training for the work and the use of the tools and the risks; make the necessary Organization for the risk assessments regarding the work; provide health and safety measures and update all of these in accordance with the changing conditions.

- Monitor the implementation of the security measures taken, supervise and ensure that they are corrected if there is any incompatibility

- Assign employees to work in accordance with their health and safety

- Ensure the use of personal equipment in accordance with national standards and regulations by employees

- Measures should be taken to prevent unauthorized access to hazardous areas at the workplace

- Ensure layout and cleanliness of building areas

- Identify access to work places and routes of equipment

- To determine the conditions for the use and transportation of materials to be used for the business

- Provide technical maintenance and control of facilities and equipment

- Determine the storage areas of materials and materials used

- Conditions for hazardous substances and materials use and disposal in case of danger conditions

- Must ensure the storage and disposal of waste

- Determine the duration of the work should revise the durations where necessary

- Work in cooperation with the principal employer

- Health and safety coordinators should take into account the detection, warning and recommendations

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of employees in their own name and account for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Take into account the warnings and instructions of Health and safety coordinators

- Risk assessment and take necessary measures

- Use machinery, equipment and personal protective equipment at work in accordance with the rules. Make warnings about deficiencies and work in cooperation with the employer

- If more than one employer exists, it should work in cooperation with other employers for Occupational Health and safety.

- Employees must be admitted to work, change of work, take breaks and be subject to health surveillance at regular intervals

- Comply with the following provisions of the laws and regulations relating to itself.

 

• Law on Occupational Health and safety - Article 5, Article 19, Article 23

• Health and safety regulation in construction works - minimum health and safety requirements for construction areas - Annex-4

• Regulation on health and safety requirements in the use of work equipment

• Regulation On The Use Of Personal Protective Equipment In Workplaces

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of the project manager for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Prepare the project on behalf of the employer and make the control of Applied.

- Health and safety coordinator should be appointed

- To prepare health and safety plan during the project preparation phase in construction works.

- Make the necessary declarations within the scope of the regulation on Occupational Health and safety in construction works

(2) the employer shall act in accordance with the occupational health and Safety Act (hereinafter referred to as the "occupational health and safety act") when taking occupational decisions and calculating the Occupational Health and safety periods.

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of the health and safety coordinator for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- To coordinate the action in accordance with the principles of prevention of risks specified in Article 5 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act when making work-related decisions and calculating work-related times;

- The project should prepare/ prepare health and safety plan during the preparation stage.

- Prepare health and safety files during the preparation phase of the project

- Coordinate implementation of Health and safety plan where health and safety plan should be planned

- To make necessary arrangements in the health and safety plan and file in case of cases that require revision

- Provide the organization between employers and sub-employers; coordinate the work of the employer to protect workers from occupational accidents and occupational diseases

- Coordinate the controls needed to work safely in the building area

- Take the necessary measures to prevent unauthorized access to building areas

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of Occupational Safety Experts for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Identify deficiencies, measures and recommendations in terms of Occupational Health and safety in accordance with legislation and technical developments and inform the employer in writing

- Occupational Health and safety services shall conduct

 The employer shall provide guidance on the Planning, Organization, ion, use, maintenance and conservation of personal protective equipment, including equipment and materials used in the works carried out on the basis of Occupational Health and safety legislation and general occupational safety rules.

- In case of emergency stop of work or in case of fire/explosion/chemical spill etc., if the employer fails to take the necessary measures, he/ she should report the situation to the competent Department of the Ministry and the representative / employee representative.

- To examine occupational accidents and occupational diseases in the workplace and to make evaluations together with the occupational physician and to make recommendations to the employer regarding the measures that take precedence over the repetition

- At the workplace, workers, equipment and workplaces may harm the risk by investigating the employer should make recommendations

 Health and safety measures should be made according to the results of the risk assessment carried out in terms of Occupational Health and safety and should prepare and follow up preventive action plans.

- Occupational health physician must prepare an annual work plan for the next year along with

- To plan periodic maintenance/control/ measures in accordance with the Occupational Health and safety legislation and to control the practices

- Participate in the preparation of emergency plans for all types of hazards, periodic training and exercises and should check the actions in accordance with the emergency plan

- Work in cooperation with the Occupational Health and Safety Board/ employee representative/ support staff, if any

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of the workplace physician for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- Identify deficiencies, measures and recommendations in terms of Occupational Health and safety in accordance with legislation and technical developments and inform the employer in writing

- In case of emergency stop of work or in case of fire/explosion/chemical spill etc., if the employer fails to take the necessary measures, he/ she should report the situation to the competent Department of the Ministry and the representative / employee representative.

- Conduct Occupational Health and safety services and assist the Occupational Safety Expert

- Employees should contribute to research on health surveillance and work environment surveillance and should guide the employer

- Employers should provide advice on the ion, use, maintenance, conservation, etc. of the works, materials used and personal protective equipment.

- Employees should make recommendations to the employer on issues that improve the health of

- Participate in occupational health and safety studies, evaluate the risks of psychosocial, and provide guidance for the Prevention of stress by conducting research to ensure the compliance of the employees with the work.

- The workplace and all the Add-ons of the hygiene controls to make recommendations on nutrition and appropriate drinking water

- Examine and evaluate occupational accidents and diseases in the workplace and make recommendations to the employer regarding the measures that take precedence over the repetition

- At the workplace, workers, equipment and workplaces may harm the risk by investigating the employer should make recommendations

- Pregnant/ breastfeeding, employees under 18 years of age, chronic disease or occupational disease, elderly/ disabled/ dependent and previous occupational accidents, such as those with special conditions close follow-up, health examinations should be done to prepare a report for their suitability to work

- The employee must obtain his / her consent for health examinations by making the input to the work and periodic examination reports

- Perform health surveillance of all employees and record these activities,

(2) the employer shall ensure that, in accordance with the provisions of this article, workers who are exposed to carcinogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic substances and agents are exposed to carcinogenic substances and agents in accordance with the provisions of this article, they are exposed to carcinogenic substances and agents in accordance with the provisions of this article, and in accordance with the provisions of

- Provide the organization and personnel training of First Aid and Emergency Response Services

- To prepare preventive activity plans by evaluating occupational accidents and occupational diseases together with occupational safety experts, to prepare an annual working plan and to submit it to the approval of the employer and to follow-up

- Temporary workers and sub-employers should check the duration of Health reports of employees

- To prepare an annual assessment report including occupational health and safety studies and health surveillance results together with occupational safety experts

- Make the necessary information through ISG-clerk system

- To propose and evaluate the results of health surveillance reports to be measured together with the Occupational Safety Specialist according to the results of assessment

- If there is a member of the Occupational Health and Safety Committee and the employee representative and support staff should work in cooperation with

- Work in cooperation with the hospitals authorized to organize Occupational Health report

- To prepare an annual work plan for the next year with the Occupational Safety Expert

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of workers ´ representatives for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- To represent employees in the work of Occupational Health and safety, they must follow the work done and seek the necessary measures to reduce the risks and make proposals.

 

 

What are the duties and responsibilities of employees for Occupational Health and safety?

 

- They should work with care and attention not to endanger the health and safety of themselves and other employees in accordance with the training and employer instructions they receive on occupational health and safety issues.

- Use personal protective equipment correctly and take care of their enclosures

- Machinery/ vehicle/ device/ hazardous substances/ equipment in the workplace, etc. they should use the equipment in accordance with the rules and instructions.

- They should inform the employer/ employee representative if they are in danger at work or if they think there is a shortage of measures or if they think there is an illegal situation.

- Work in cooperation with the employer and his representative for Occupational Health and safety related to the fields of Duty

 

 

SOME TSE STANDARDS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY:

 

- Ts 12442 standard - occupational health and safety - occupational accident report (Accepted date: 13.04.1998)

- TS 3021 standard-continuous Mechanical Transport Equipment for parts loads (Accepted date: 23.02.1978)

- Ts en 791 standard - drilling machines - Security (Accepted date: 20.01.2003))

- Ts en 12418 standard - Kagir and Stone Cutting Machines used in construction sites - safety (accepted date: 15.01.2002)

- TS 9725 standard - construction and excavation machinery - principles for Operator Training (Accepted date: 14.01.1992))

- TS 8983 Standard-General safety measures required to be taken during construction (Accepted date: 19.03.1991)

- TS 8481 Standard-General safety measures required to be taken during construction (Accepted date: 02.10.1990)

- TS 8538 numbered standard - construction work scaffolding rules-Wood (accepted date: 20.11.1990 ) )

- TS 8539 numbered standard - construction work scaffolding rules - metal (Accepted date: 20.11.1990))

- TS en 474-1 standard - construction and excavation machinery - safety (Accepted date: 06.04.2001))

- TS 12815 standard-construction (reinforced concrete) Blacksmith (Accepted date : 13.03.2002)

- TS 12784 standard - construction technician ( accepted date: 20.11.2001)

- TS 12786 standard-reinforced concrete mold (Accepted date: 20.11.2001)

- Ts ISO 9244 standard - construction and excavation machinery - safety signs and Hazard plates-general principles (accepted date: 30.12.1997)

- Ts ISO 13200 standard - cranes - safety signs and Hazard plates - general principles (accepted date: 08.12.1998)

- Ts ISO 12480 standard - cranes-safe use (Accepted date: 13.04.1999))

- TS en 500 standard - Gezer (mobile) Road Construction Machinery-safety rules (accepted date: 07.03.1997))

 

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